This work stimulates advances in the theoretical understanding of atomic systems at the most fundamental level, where relativistic and field-theoretic aspects of the atoms become important. An experimental laser spectroscopy program focuses on precision measurements of transition amplitudes and energies. These measurements are of interest to the study of parity nonconservation effects in atoms which is motivated by the study of weak interactions and are part of a low energy test of the standard model. High-resolution spectroscopic techniques are also used in other applications.
For this purpose we supply a short account of the development in the area which evolved over the last 9 decades, since the discovery of the neutron.
The evolution of the physics of the atomic nucleus went through many stages as more data become available. The richness of the ideas and abundance of theoretical models attests to the important fact that the nucleus is a really singular system in the sense that it evolves from two-body bound states such as the deuteron, to few-body bound Current physics research, such as 4He, 7Li, 9Be etc.
The richness of nuclear physics stems from these restrictions.
New theories and models are presently being developed. Theories of the structure and reactions of neutron-rich and proton-rich nuclei, called exotic nuclei, halo nuclei, or Borromean nuclei deal with the wealth of experimental data available in the last 35 years.
Further, nuclear astrophysics and stellar and Big Bang nucleosynthesis have become a more mature subject. Due to limited space, this review only covers a few selected topics, mainly those with which the authors have worked with.
Our aimed potential readers of this review are nuclear physicists and physicists in other areas, as well as graduate students interested in pursuing a career in nuclear physics.
The collective model is now considered an elaborate extension of the shell model through the inclusion of nucleon-nucleon correlations, which are predominantly of the pairing plus quadrupole type .
In fact the shorter-range pairing correlations were introduced into nuclear physics at almost the same time that the BCS theory of superconductivity was developed .
For general texts on nuclear physics theory we suggest Refs. The resulting Interacting Boson Model IBM has as building blocks pairs of correlated particles neutrons or protons coupled to angular momentum 0 and 2 and treated as bosons [7, 20, 21].
The resulting Hamiltonian can be analyzed using symmetry concepts and the corresponding spectrum is obtained analytically with the help of group theory. The concepts of compound nucleus [6, 22—26] and direct reactions [9, 10] became a common language with the bombarding energy of the probing projectile being the deciding factor in applying either one of the two concepts: It is this rich variety of possibilities which prompted the great advances made in the quantum scattering theory that underlines nuclear reactions.
In this review we give a brief account of these development. As decades passed by, the main interests in nuclear physics were broadened and strong overlaps with other areas of science emerged.
Our knowledge about the nucleons also changed with time. New theories and experiments are now dedicated to probe the sub-nucleon degrees of freedom and how they change in the nuclear medium, in stars and in the evolution of our Universe. We are witnessing an increasing enthusiasm in the nuclear physics community with its stronger involvement in problems with interface with many other areas, such as Chemistry, Biology, Cosmology, Astrophysics, Energy, Medicine, etc.
Needless to mention that Nuclear Physics carries a big burden of being tightly involved with political issues such as national security and non-proliferation of nuclear weapons, a serious threat to the survival of the human race. But, it is also rewarding to witness the involvement of many nuclear physicists in politics, a good example being our colleague E.
Moniz, a nuclear theorist and since the U.Current research in low-temperature physics focuses on potential supersolids, studies of superflow along grain boundaries in solid helium, the effects of disorder and confinement on superfluids and their quantum phase transitions,and the development of new cooling technologies for .
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